I wish express my sincerest gratitude to three reviewers for their open discussions about the data, methodology, and presentation of the findings. Conceived and designed the experiments: SL. Performed the experiments: SL. Analyzed the data: SL. Wrote the paper: SL.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Among languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Center for Strategic & International Studies
Introduction A penetrating insight that evolution can describe historical change of languages has enabled us to chart out how language history unfolds within the episodes of human history, as explosive as the Austronesian languages of the Pacific [ 1 , 2 ] or as complex as the Indo-European language family of the European continent [ 3 , 4 ]. Download: PPT. Materials and Methods Two hundred and forty six basic vocabulary items [ 19 , 20 ] were extracted from each of 14 living and one 1 ancient Koreanic variants using multiple sources: i a large field collection made by Shimpei Ogura [ 21 ], ii a modern dictionary of Koreanic variants that combine lexicons from several different references [ 22 ], and iii an etymological glossary of Middle Korean that contains lexicons sampled from over historical documents [ 23 ].
Results and Discussion Bayes factor tests strongly supported the covarion substitution model with a relaxed clock as the best fit, with Bayes factors of 24 over the second best model using the covarion with a strict clock S1 Table. Fig 3. Fig 4. Maps showing the geographical features and linguistic barriers. Summary and Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the early historical relationships among Koreanic variants are considerably non-treelike.
CRC Press Online - Series: Routledge Language Family Series
S1 Dataset. All data used in the study. S2 Dataset.
S1 Fig. The raw output from Barrier analysis. S2 Fig. Relationship between the number of barriers and the amount of lexical beta diversity explained. S3 Fig. S1 Table.
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Marginal likelihoods estimated from all models. S2 Table. S3 Table. All results from Mantel tests before and after controlling for geographical proximity. Acknowledgments I wish express my sincerest gratitude to three reviewers for their open discussions about the data, methodology, and presentation of the findings. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: SL. References 1. Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Blust R. The Austronesian languages. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics; Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin.
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Oceanic barriers promote language diversification in the Japanese Islands. J Evol Biol. Axelsen JB, Manrubia S. River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguistic diversity. Proc Biol Sci. Crowley T, Bowern C. An introduction to historical linguistics. Cambridge: Oxford University Press; The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: from bioinformatics to lexomics. Evol Bioinform. Ogura S. Chosengo hogen no kenkyu A study of Korean dialects. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten; Nanmal ohwi chongbo chori yonguso. Urimal pangen sacen A dictionary of Korean dialects.
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